Phonemic Awareness is the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the in-patient sounds which make up words. In the past few decades, large levels of research have improved our understanding of phonemic awareness and its importance in assisting children figure out how to read. There are countless research studies conducted on all aspects of phonemic awareness, and how it affects and benefits reading and spelling abilities of young children. The National Reading Panel of the US have stated that phonemic awareness improves children’s reading and reading comprehension, and so it also helps children to understand to spell. On the basis of the research and reviews done by the National Reading Panel, they have concluded that teaching phonics and phonemic awareness produces better reading results than whole language programs.
When teaching phonemic awareness, students are taught the littlest units of sound, or phonemes. Through the teaching process, children are taught to target on the phonemes, and learn to govern the phonemes in words. Studies have identified phonemic awareness and letter knowledge as the 2 best school-entry predictors of how well children will learn to learn during the first 2 years of instruction. In overview of phonemic awareness research, the National Reading Panel (NRP) identified 1,962 citations, and the outcome of these meta-analysis were impressive as stated in the NRP publication:
Overall, the findings revealed that teaching children to govern phonemes in words was highly effective under many different teaching conditions with a number of learners across a variety of grade and age levels and that teaching phonemic awareness to children significantly improves their reading more than instruction that lacks any focus on phonemic awareness (PA).
Specifically, the outcomes of the experimental studies led the Panel to conclude that PA training was the explanation for improvement in students’phonemic awareness, reading, and spelling following training. The findings were replicated repeatedly across multiple experiments and thus provide converging evidence for causal claims. 
As can be clearly seen, teaching children phonemic awareness in early stages significantly improves their reading and spelling abilities. Furthermore, the NRP research stated that these beneficial aftereffects of phonemic awareness teaching goes well beyond the conclusion of training period. The NRP phonemic awareness research also discovered that the very best teaching method was to systematically teach children to control phonemes with letters, and teaching children in small groups.
Phonemic awareness (PA) teaching provides children with an essential foundation of the alphabet system, and a base in reading and spelling. The NRP has stated that PA instructions is an essential instructional component within a complete reading program.
Guidelines two other studies done on phonemic awareness, and its effects on reading abilities. In a study involving children aged 6 to 7 years of age, researchers discovered that the few readers in the beginning of grade one exhibited high phonemic awareness scored at the very least close to perfect in the vowel substitution task, compared to none in children of exactly the same age group who couldn’t read if they entered school. The research also stated that phonemic awareness differences before instruction predicted the accuracy of alphabetic reading and spelling at the end of grade one independent from IQ. Children with high phonemic awareness at the start of grade one had high reading and spelling achievements by the end of grade one; however, some of the children with low phonemic awareness had difficulties understanding how to read and spell. The research suggested that phonemic awareness could be the critical variable for the progress in learning to read. 
Another study viewed phonemic awareness and emergent literacy skills of 42 children with an average age of 5 years and 7 months. The researchers indicated that relations between phonemic awareness and spelling skills are bidirectional where phonemic awareness improved spelling skills, and spelling influenced the growth in phonemic skills. 
It’s clear that with the conclusions produced by the National Reading Panel and other research studies on the benefits of phonemic awareness, children ought to be taught PA at a young age before entering school. It will help them build a strong foundation for learning how to read and spell.
1. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
2. Cognition. 1991 Sep;40(3):219-49.
The relationship of phonemic awareness to reading acquisition: more consequence than precondition but still important.
Wimmer H, Landerl K, Linortner R, Hummer P.
University of Salzburg, Austria.
3. Exp Child Psychol. 2002 Jun;82(2):93-115.
Emergent literacy skills and training time uniquely predict variability in responses to phonemic awareness training in disadvantaged kindergartners.
Hecht SA, Close L.