Phonemic Awareness Research | Types Of Phonics

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Children Learning Reading

By: ChildrenLearningReading.com

Phonemic Awareness is the capacity to hear, identify, and manipulate the person sounds which will make up words. In recent decades, large amounts of research have improved our comprehension of phonemic awareness and its importance in aiding children learn how to read. There are a huge selection of research studies conducted on all aspects of phonemic awareness, and how it affects and benefits reading and spelling abilities of young children. The National Reading Panel of the US have stated that phonemic awareness improves children’s reading and reading comprehension, and so it also helps children to understand to spell. On the basis of the research and reviews done by the National Reading Panel, they have concluded that teaching phonics and phonemic awareness produces better reading results than whole language programs.

When teaching phonemic awareness, students are taught the tiniest units of sound, or phonemes. During the teaching process, children are taught to target on the phonemes, and learn to govern the phonemes in words. Studies have identified phonemic awareness and letter knowledge as the 2 best school-entry predictors of how well children will learn to see during the first 2 years of instruction. In analysis phonemic awareness research, the National Reading Panel (NRP) identified 1,962 citations, and the outcome of their meta-analysis were impressive as mentioned in the NRP publication:

Overall, the findings showed that teaching children to control phonemes in words was highly effective under many different teaching conditions with a number of learners across a variety of grade and age levels and that teaching phonemic awareness to children significantly improves their reading a lot more than instruction that lacks any attention to phonemic awareness (PA).

Specifically, the results of the experimental studies led the Panel to conclude that PA training was the explanation for improvement in students’phonemic awareness, reading, and spelling following training. The findings were replicated repeatedly across multiple experiments and thus provide converging evidence for causal claims. [1]

As could be clearly seen, teaching children phonemic awareness in early stages significantly improves their reading and spelling abilities. Furthermore, the NRP research stated why these beneficial aftereffects of phonemic awareness teaching goes well beyond the conclusion of training period. The NRP phonemic awareness research also found that the very best teaching method was to systematically teach children to control phonemes with letters, and teaching children in small groups.

Phonemic awareness (PA) teaching provides children having an essential foundation of the alphabet system, and a basis in reading and spelling. The NRP has stated that PA instructions is a necessary instructional component in just a complete reading program.

Guidelines two other studies done on phonemic awareness, and its effects on reading abilities. In a study involving children aged 6 to 7 years of age, researchers discovered that the few readers at the start of grade one exhibited high phonemic awareness scored at the very least close to master in the vowel substitution task, compared to none in children of the same generation who couldn’t read when they entered school. The investigation also stated that phonemic awareness differences before instruction predicted the accuracy of alphabetic reading and spelling by the end of grade one independent from IQ. Children with high phonemic awareness from the beginning of grade one had high reading and spelling achievements by the end of grade one; however, some of the children with low phonemic awareness had difficulties understanding how to read and spell. The study suggested that phonemic awareness may be the critical variable for the progress in learning how to read. [2]

Another study looked at phonemic awareness and emergent literacy skills of 42 children with an average age of 5 years and 7 months. The researchers indicated that relations between phonemic awareness and spelling skills are bidirectional where phonemic awareness improved spelling skills, and spelling influenced the growth in phonemic skills. [3]

It’s clear that with the conclusions created by the National Reading Panel and other research studies on the advantages of phonemic awareness, children must be taught PA at a early age before entering school. It will help them build a solid foundation for understanding how to read and spell.

>> Help your youngster develop phonemic awareness and teach your youngster to read today.

Children Learning Reading

Notes:

1. National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

2. Cognition. 1991 Sep;40(3):219-49.
The relationship of phonemic awareness to reading acquisition: more consequence than precondition but still important.
Wimmer H, Landerl K, Linortner R, Hummer P.
University of Salzburg, Austria.

3. Exp Child Psychol. 2002 Jun;82(2):93-115.
Emergent literacy skills and training time uniquely predict variability in responses to phonemic awareness training in disadvantaged kindergartners.
Hecht SA, Close L.

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